Table of Contents Ph.D.

The following is a list of chapters and chapter sections of the Ph.D.CHAPTER 1: Scope of the Study

1.1  Introduction: The  problem and purpose of the study

1.2  Psychometrics and norm-referenced testing

1.3  Summative assessment

1.4  The One Best Test

1.5  Hypotheses of the study

1.6  Historical and educational context

1.7  Measures used in the study

1.8  Method overview

1.9  Preview of Chapters 2 to 6

1.10 Summary of Chapter 1

CHAPTER 2: Theoretical Issues in the Testing of Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement

2.1   Introduction

2.2   Ability, cognitive skills and language ability

2.3   Competence and performance

2.4   Proficiency

2.5   The discrete-point/integrative controversy

2.6   Cognitive and Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) and “test language”

2.7   Language proficiency and academic achievement

2.8   Validity

2.8.1 Face validity

2.8.2 Content validity

2.8.3 Construct validity

2.8.4 Criterion validity: concurrent and predictive validity

2.9    Reliability

2.9.1  Approaches to the measurement of reliability

2.10   Ethics of measurement

2.11   Summary of Chapter 2

CHAPTER 3: Sampling, and Structure and Administration of the English Proficiency Tests

3.1      Introduction

3.2       Sampling procedures for the selection of subjects

3.2.1     The two main groups of the sample: First Language (L1) and second Language (L2) groups

3.3        Structure and administration of the English proficiency tests

3.3.1    The cloze tests  Theoretical overview  The cloze tests used in the study

3.3.2      The essay tests  Theoretical overview  The essay tests used in the study

3.3.3      Error recognition and mixed grammar tests  Theoretical overview  Error recognition and mixed grammar tests used in the study

3.3.4    The dictation test  Introduction  Theoretical overview  The dictation tests used in the study  Presentation of the dictation tests  Method of scoring of the dictation tests

3.4       Summary of Chapter 3

CHAPTER 4: Results of the proficiency tests

4.1    Introduction

4.2    Reliability coefficients

4.3    Analysis of variance of the dictation tests

4.4    Validity coefficients

4.5    Descriptive data of the L1 and L2 groups

4.6    The L1 and L2 groups: Do these levels represent separate populations?

4.7    Comparing groups and comparing tests

4.8    Error analysis and rater reliability

4.8.1  Rater reliability among educators of teachers of English

4.8.1  Interrater reliability: scores and judgements

4.9    Summary of Chapter 4

CHAPTER 5: The Prediction of Academic achievement

5.1  Introduction

5.2  Correlational analysis and multiple regressions of the predictions

5.3  Frequency distributions of the predictions and data analysis

5.3.1 What do we mean by correlation?

5.4  General discussion of language proficiency tests as predictors of academic achievement

5.5  The reliability and predictive validity of the Grade 6 reports of previous schools

5.5.1 Introduction

5.5.2 An examination of the Grade 6 reports

5.6    Summary of the findings and their generalisability

5.5  Summary of Chapter 5

CHAPTER 6: Implications and Conclusions

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The L1/L2 and native speaker/non-native speaker distinctions

6.3  Negotiating the task-demands and the “Threshold Project”

6.4  Competence-based Education  training (CBET) and “Outcomes-based Education” (OBE)

6.5  Rater consistency, or reliability

6.6  Paradigm lost paradigm regained (recreated?)

6.7  Conclusion of the study

6.8  Summary of Chapter 6


Table 1.1 Rowntree’s Schema of Assessment and Evaluation

Table 1.2 Rea’s Schema of Assessment

Table 1.3  Grade 9 Pass Rate

Table 1.4  Grade 12 Pass Rate

Table 1.5  Comparison of Grade 6 reports between Connie

Minchin Primary School and 28 DET Schools

Table 1.6   Comparison of Grade 6 reports between mother tongue

English speakers and non-mother tongue English speakers

Table 2.1    Functionalist and Structuralist Levels of language

Table 3.1    Detailed Analysis of the L1 Subjects

Table 3.2    Detailed Analysis of the L2 Subjects

Table 3.3    Normal Presentation of Dictation using One Presenter with One Presentation to all Four Groups

Table 3.4    Presentation of Dictation with Four Presenters: First Presentation of Each Presenter

Table 4.1    Reliability Coefficients of All the Tests    107

Table 4.2    Cumulative Reliability Coefficients: Comparison between Error Recognition Test (ER) and Mixed Grammar Test  (GRAM)

Table 4.3    Analysis of Variance of the Dictation Tests with First Presentation

Table 4.4    Validity Coefficients of English Proficiency Tests

Table 4.5    Means, Standard Deviations and z-tests for the L1 and L2 groups

Table 4.6    Frequency Distribution of all the Tests

Table 4.7    Occupation  of  Parents of the  L2 Subjects

Table 4.8    Error Recognition test: Percentage Error

Table 4.9    Protocol 1 (L2): Summary NAETE Judgements of  Raters on Content, Grammar and Spelling

Table 4.10 Protocol 2 (L1): Summary of NAETE Judgements of  Raters on Content, Grammar and Spelling

Table 5.1  Grade 6 to Grade 11 Correlational Analysis of the Prediction of Academic Achievement with Aggregate as Criterion

Table 5.2    Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis of Predictions

Table 6.1.   Attitudes to Testing


Figure 1.1   Rea’s Schema of Assessment

Figure 1.2   Rowntree’s Schema of Assessment & Evaluation

Figure 2.1   Second Language Proficiency as a Criterion Variable and as a Predictor Variable

Figure 4.1   Comparison between the reliabilities of ER and GRAM

Figure 4.2   A Comparison of the Groups at Mmabatho High School with the Middle School (MID) on the Cloze Tests

Figure 4.3   Frequency Distribution of the Scores Awarded by the 24 Raters on Protocol 1

Figure 4.4   Frequency Distribution of the Scores Awarded by the 24 Raters on Protocol 2

Figure 4.4   Histogram of frequency distribution of NAETE scores on Protocol 2 (L1)

Figure 5.1   NTL1 (Non-Tswana L1) Grade 7 to Grade 11 Pass Rate

Figure 5.2   TL1 (Tswana L1) Grade 7 to Grade 11 Pass Rate

Figure 5.3   L1 (NTL1 & TL1) Grade 7 to Grade 11 Pass Rate

Figure 5.4   L2 Grade 7 to Grade 11 Pass Rate


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